Person

H. J. L. Struycken was a Dutch otolaryngologist, phonetician, and acoustician. After studying medicine in Groningen, in 1893 he started working at the Voorburg psychiatric hospital near Vught, where he attempted to distinguish psychiatric conditions from neurological speech disorders. His interest in phonetics and acoustics took Struycken to France and Germany, to visit clinics and approach instrument makers who could produce tuning forks for him to use in his clinical research.

1896
1950
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Stoffers, Gottfried. 1910. “Musikinstrumente”. In . Köln (Cologne): Gottfried Stoffers.
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Nicola, Vicentino. 1561. “ Catalogo Della Biblioteca Del Liceo Musicale Di Bologna”. Nicolo Bevilacqua. http://www.bibliotecamusica.it/cmbm/scripts/gaspari/scheda.asp?id=1534.
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1930. “Funk: Die Wochenschrift Des Funkwesens”. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.
Person

The silk manufacturer Johann Heinrich Scheibler invented a method to tune keyboards with unprecedented accuracy, applying principles that he had developed in his textile factory. His technique involved a set of tuning forks called a tonometer, a chronometer, and the counting of beats. It aimed to deskill tuning so that anyone could achieve precise tuning regardless of their musical ear. He explained his invention in Der physikalische und musikalische Tonmesser of 1834.

1777
1837
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Driesen, Otto. 1913. Das Grammophon Im Dienste Des Unterrichts Und Der Wissenschaft. Band I, Teil 1: Kindergarten, Volksschule, Mittelschule, Höhere Lehranstalten. Berlin: Deutsche Grammophon-Aktiengesellschaft.
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Ellis, Alexander John. 1845. A Plea For Phonotypy And Phonography; Or, Speech-Printing And Speech-Writing.. London: S. Bagsters and Sons.
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“Index: Appunn’s “Tenor” Tonometer Recordings”. 2013.
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1926. “Funk: Die Wochenschrift Des Funkwesens”. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.
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1926. “Funk: Die Wochenschrift Des Funkwesens”. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.