H. J. L. Struycken was a Dutch otolaryngologist, phonetician, and acoustician. After studying medicine in Groningen, in 1893 he started working at the Voorburg psychiatric hospital near Vught, where he attempted to distinguish psychiatric conditions from neurological speech disorders. His interest in phonetics and acoustics took Struycken to France and Germany, to visit clinics and approach instrument makers who could produce tuning forks for him to use in his clinical research.

“Helmholtz Resonators By Rudolph Koenig”. n.d. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University.
2013. “24576_1876-469_Tone-Limit-App_1”.
Object, Instrument, Technology

The sound synthesiser was Helmholtz’s clearest instrumental expression of his theory of timbre, or sound quality. Whereas his spherical resonators dissected compound sounds (vowels or musical sounds) into elemental frequencies, the synthesiser did this by building up complex sounds from simple frequencies. In 1857 he went to the instrument maker Friedrich Fessel of Cologne to turn this idea into reality. The initial instruments used a combination of electrically driven tuning forks, resonators and piano keys to synthesise compound sounds.

Object, Instrument, Technology

Tone-limit apparatus, for high notes of high pitch.

Made by G. Appunn & Sons.


            This apparatus was designed for determining the highest vibration-frequency which is recognized by the ear as a musical tone. It consists of 31 small tuning forks, giving the diatonic scale

“Index: Tone-Limit Apparatus”. 2013.
Kolkowski, Aleksander. 2013. “2048 Vps_1876-469_Tone-Limit-Apparatus_1”.
2013. “2304 Vps_1876-469_Tone-Limit-Apparatus_1”.
2013. “2560_1876-469_Tone-Limit-App_1”.
2013. “2730,66_1876-469_Tone-Limit-App_1”.