Person

H. J. L. Struycken was a Dutch otolaryngologist, phonetician, and acoustician. After studying medicine in Groningen, in 1893 he started working at the Voorburg psychiatric hospital near Vught, where he attempted to distinguish psychiatric conditions from neurological speech disorders. His interest in phonetics and acoustics took Struycken to France and Germany, to visit clinics and approach instrument makers who could produce tuning forks for him to use in his clinical research.

1896
1950
Person

Jules Antoine Lissajous was a high-school teacher, then held prestigious administrative posts in the education system of various parts of France. He had trained in physics, and defended his dissertation on vibratory phenomena in 1850.

1822
1880
Video
Mn-61 Wire Recorder (Video). n.d.
Person

The silk manufacturer Johann Heinrich Scheibler invented a method to tune keyboards with unprecedented accuracy, applying principles that he had developed in his textile factory. His technique involved a set of tuning forks called a tonometer, a chronometer, and the counting of beats. It aimed to deskill tuning so that anyone could achieve precise tuning regardless of their musical ear. He explained his invention in Der physikalische und musikalische Tonmesser of 1834.

1777
1837
Video
Turner, Steven. 2012. “Introduction To Tuning Forks From The National Museum Of American History”. Smithsonian National Museum of American History. https://youtu.be/arP0Jq35dws.
Video
Braguinski, Nikita. 2018. Tuning Forks Owned By The Media Archaeological Fundus (Video).
Video
Fondazione Scienza e Tecnica,. (17 August 2015AD) 2015. “Recording The Vibrations Of Tuning Forks”. Florence, Italy: Fondazione Scienza e Tecnica. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o7A4jyFG7hE.
Video
University of Michigan,. (11 Sept 2014AD) 2014. “Tuning Fork In Slow Motion”. Houghton, Michigan: Michigan Technological University. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CS0Ax_JM1iQ.
Person

Karl Rudolph Koenig (also known as Rudolf Koenig or König) studied at the University of Königsberg. In about 1852, he moved to Paris and joined the workshop of famous violin-maker Jean Baptiste Vuillaume. In his leisure time, Koenig attended public lectures and studied mechanics, becoming increasingly interested in acoustics research. After six years of apprenticeship with Vuillaume, Koenig became a master violin-maker, but his own new business was a workshop for acoustic apparatus.

1832
1901