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Koenig, Rudolph. (1881) 1881. Annalen Der Physik Und Chemie 13: 569-582.
Western Electric Company,. n.d. “Western Electric News”.
The Bell Telephone Company of Chicago,. n.d. “Bell Telephone News”.
1937. “Brief Dr. J. De Boer Aan Prof. Dr. A.d. Fokker [Voorzitter Geluidstichting], Over Het Kalibreren Van De General Radio Noisemeters, 28.05.1937”. Geluidstichting. [Letter Dr. J. De Boer To Prof. Dr. A.d. Fokker [Chair Geluidstichting], About The Calibration Of The General Radio Noisemeters, 28.05.1937]. Delft.
Geluidstichting. 1935. “Brief Katholieke Radio Omroep (Kro) [Naam Onleesbaar] Aan Mr. H.j. Schölvinck [Tweede Secretaris Geluidstichting], 17.09.1935 [Over Het Uitzenden Van Enkele Korte Speeches]”. [Letter Catholic Radio Broadcasting Station (Kro) [Name Unreadable] To Mr. H.j. Schölvinck [Second Secretary Sound Foundation], 17.09.1935 [About Broadcasting A Few Short Speeches]]. Amsterdam.
Stoffers, Gottfried. 1910. “Musikinstrumente”. In . Köln (Cologne): Gottfried Stoffers.
Object, Instrument, Technology

This Excelsior phonograph is a model based on the Edison phonograph and produced by the Excelsiorwerke Cöln factory in Cologne, Germany, between 1903 and 1906. The original Edison phonograph (invented in 1877 by Thomas Alva Edison) is an iconic piece of historical sound technology that is universally associated with the beginning of sound reproduction in the late nineteenth century. It is based on the direct transfer of the vibration of air, caused by a sound source, onto a writing surface, then its playback. During recording, a stylus cuts a spiraling groove into the cylinder.

Cöln, Excelsiorwerke. n.d. “Excelsior Phonograph (5)”. Cologne.
Cöln, Excelsiorwerke. n.d. “Excelsior Phonograph (Video)”. Cologne.